FINISHES can be created in an infinite number of
ways using an endless array of tools and methods. The
apparent textures will vary depending on tool selection
and the artist's method of application motions, such as
brushing, rolling, dabbing, pressing, smoothing and/or
wiping. Additional layers and/or colors can always be
used to create different and more complex results. Here
is just a small sample of some of the most commonly used
techniques from which most unique finishes are based.
TERM & DEFINITIONS
Sponging On: Any style of sponge, from ordinary kitchen sponge to natural sea sponge, is used to apply paint or glaze to a surface with the deliberate intention of creating a mottled application leaving gaps that show the surface's original color.
Sponging Off: Contrary to Sponging On, a clean sponge is used to remove wet paint or glaze from a surface, to reveal more subtle variations of color between the original surface and the new paint/glaze layer.
Multicolored Sponging: Using either or both Sponging techniques, multiple colors can be blended on the surface to create unique effects depending on color choices.
Ragging On: Identical in technique to Sponging On with the exception of using rags of any material, which are bunched or formed into "rosette" types of patterns, to apply the paint or glaze to the surface.
Ragging Off: Identical in technique to Sponging Off with the exception of using clean rags to remove the paint or glaze from the surface, creating subtle variations in color.
Granite: With careful color and sponge selection, multiple layers of paint and glaze can reproduce the look of granite.
Frottage with Paper: A technique of pressing large sheets of paper against a newly painted or glazed surface which will absorb and lift off some of the color when it is peeled off.
Frottage with Plastic: Identical in technique to Frottage with Paper with the exception that the plastic film will not absorb color, but instead will "push" and manipulate the color into various degrees of opacity.
Fresco: Various layers of paints and glazes are manipulated with multiple tools during carefully timed periods between wet and dryness of the materials in order to add and remove layers of color to give the appearance of a weathered fresco.
Marble: With careful color selection, very soft brushes and tools can blend multiple colors of paints and glazes to replicate the appearance of marble.
Slate: Similar in method to creating a Marble finish, this technique uses slightly rougher tools and different color selections.
Terracotta: With careful color selection, multiple shades of natural clay colors are blended together while very wet to create the appearance of natural terracotta.
Velvet: Initially identical in technique to creating Granite, using multiple layers of more closely related colors, this Velvet look was finished by dabbing (also known as "stippling" or "pouncing") a paintbrush with a wide area of flat bristle tips against the surface to breakup and softly blend the various colors.
Linen: A rough and scratchy paintbrush is dragged in one direction, through a wet paint or glaze layer to reveal a fiber like pattern and then repeated in a perpendicular direction to complete the look of the weave.
Washed Denim: Indentical to the Linen finish with the exception of color choices and "weathering" the surfaces just before it is completely dry with rags, cheesecloth, and brushes to add subtle imperfections.
Dragging: As simple as it sounds, this technique varies as much as the tool choices that can be dragged through a wet newly painted or glazed surface. Usually done in one direction to show up the texture of the tool.
Combing: Identical to Dragging with the exception of using only firm tools with deliberately spaced ridges that can be pulled through the wet paint or glaze to lift up larger amounts color. This is often done in multiple directions to create more graphic patterns.
Artificial Grass: Carefully chosen colors are blended together with a paint brush using a pressing motion that replicates the brush's bushy bristle print in a pattern resembling grass.